Tensions between Fatah and Hamas` political parties have continued since 2007. The problems between the two sides have been numerous, but discussions have arisen on how to deal with Israel. Hamas has cancelled any kind of agreement with Israel because it believes it should not have the right to exist at all, while Fatah has agreed in the past to cooperate with Israel.  On February 8, 2007, Hamas and Fatah signed the Mecca Agreement between Fatah and Hamas. In April 2011, they signed an agreement in Cairo to end the Fatah-Hamas conflict. On February 7, 2012, in the Qatari capital Doha, the parties signed the Doha Agreement, which placed Abbas at the head of a transitional government of independent technocrats tasked with holding elections later in 2012.   However, the agreement has not been implemented. Other agreements aimed at building a bridge between the two sides include the 2011 Cairo Agreement, the Fatah-Hamas Mecca Agreement, the 2012 Doha Agreement, and the 2014 Beach Refugee Camps Agreement.  The agreement was well received in the West Bank, Gaza Strip and refugee camps in Lebanon. But Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu called the deal “a huge blow to peace and a great victory for terrorism.” In June 2011, negotiations on the formation of a unity government were suspended due to disagreements over the identity of the prime minister.
Fatah insisted on keeping Salam Fayyad. Fayyad was unacceptable to Hamas, which wanted a prime minister of Gaza.   The two factions were equally divided over how to deal with Israel. While Fatah advocated peace with Israel, Hamas rejected international demands to renounce violence and recognition of Israel`s right to exist.  Israel, which signed the Oslo Accords with the PLO in 1993, avoids Hamas and sees it as a terrorist group dedicated to the destruction of the Jewish state. On October 12, 2017, the Fatah-Hamas agreement was signed in Cairo, organized under pressure from Qatar, the United Arab Emirates and Egypt. The agreement stipulates that Hamas will give Fatah full civilian control of the Gaza Strip and, in return, ease the economic blockade of the Gaza Strip. In recent months, Hamas has come under intense pressure from the PA. The punitive measures included cutting the salaries of PA employees living in Gaza and cutting the electricity supply to the Gaza Strip, which is already suffering from an electricity crisis due to the Israeli blockade.   3,000 Palestinian Authority police officers are housed in the enclave.  The head of the PA delegation, Azzam al-Ahmad, said that the Rafah crossing between Egypt and Gaza would be operated by the presidential guard of PA President Mahmoud Abbas until November 1.
 Last week, when news of the deal became public, activists went to the same location to show their joy at the prospect of the end of the split. Within minutes, they were cleared with batons by Hamas policemen. The leader reports that an agreement has been reached with Fatah to end 10 years of political division. On the 11th. In September 2006, President Mahmoud Abbas and Prime Minister Ismail Haniyeh reached a provisional agreement on the formation of a Government of national unity. They agreed that the new government should be based on the prisoner`s document.   On September 20, the Palestinian daily al-Ayyam published the text of the draft agreement entitled “Program for a New Government,” which consists of 7 points.  The agreement states that the government will “respect” the agreements signed by the PLO and support plans based on the 2002 Arab Peace Initiative. In the draft Abbas-Haniyeh agreement, Hamas recognizes for the first time the peace agreements between the PLO and Israel.
One of the effective means of pressure that Israel sometimes uses is the withholding of taxes it collects on behalf of the PA. Israel has punished Palestinians collectively, for example after the formation of the PA government in 2006 and the successive unity government in 2007, after the May 2011 reconciliation agreement and after UN motions.  Until the first intifada, Fatah was the only dominant party in the Palestinian political arena, including the PLO. In 1987, Hamas emerged as a resistance movement against the Israeli occupation. After the Oslo Accords, the PLO, of which Fatah was still a dominant member, formally condemned armed resistance. Hamas refused to recognize Israel and opposed the Oslo Accords and subsequent agreements between the PLO and Israel. Under pressure from Israel and the international community, Fatah sought to eliminate Hamas, especially after Mahmoud Abbas succeeded Arafat as president of the Palestinian Authority. Tensions rose before Israel`s withdrawal from Gaza in 2005 and culminated in the battle for Gaza in June 2007, leading to a split in the Palestinian government. Abbas said last week that he had moved closer to a deal with Ehud Olmert, then Israel`s prime minister, in 2008. When he tried to resume negotiations with Mr.
Netanyahu the following year, he faced a more hawkish approach. The event they broadcast on television, a demonstration for the reconciliation agreement, began with a few dozen people singing in The Unknown Soldier Square, and became a noisy group of thousands of people waving Fatah`s yellow flags that had long been hidden. The potential of the agreement was underscored by the presence of representatives from the UN, the EU and the Arab League – all of whom are now digesting the diplomatic implications for the region. “We are sure to succeed as long as we are united,” Abbas said. “Reconciliation not only paves the way for the tidying up of the Palestinian home, but also for a just peace.” On May 20, 2012, Hamas and Fatah signed another agreement in Cairo, this time in preparation for elections for the new unity government of the West Bank and Gaza Strip. The new agreement took steps to implement the previous Doha agreement between Fatah and Hamas, including the registration of new voters in the Gaza Strip and the formation of a transitional government from May 27.  Neither side was able to reach a compromise with the other`s demands. Fatah criticized Hamas for its power in the Gaza Strip, stressing that Hamas should give up some of its control. Hamas, on the other hand, would not accept a compromise as long as Fatah continued to appease Israel.  The agreement was suspended until May 2012, with both parties at a standstill.
Negotiations on the agreement were interrupted due to persistent disagreements between the parties.  He added that under Abbas`s orders, the two groups would not return to the occupied Palestinian territories unless they had a “final agreement that would put the rift aside forever.” to realize the Palestinian dream of ending the occupation and having an independent, sovereign Palestinian state with East Jerusalem as its capital. While the government`s work has made no progress, also alarmed by massive Israeli raids in the West Bank following the abduction and murder of three young Israelis and the major attacks that followed on Gaza during the Israel-Gaza conflict in 2014, the parties signed a supplementary agreement in Cairo on September 25, 2014. This agreement defined the tasks and responsibilities of the new government. “An announcement is expected in the coming hours to announce the details of the deal.” The 2012 Cairo agreement between Fatah and Hamas was a reconciliation agreement between the ruling Palestinian Authority, Fatah, and the fundamentalist organization Hamas, which currently rules the Gaza Strip. The goal of the agreement signed in May 2012 by Fatah President Mahmoud Abbas and Hamas leader Khaled Mashal was to form a transitional government in preparation for elections for a new Palestinian government.  However, the agreement quickly collapsed and measures of great reconciliation were not taken until January 2013. Despite a number of agreements, these attempts have not yet been successful, as Hamas still exercised full control over the Gaza Strip despite the formation of the “unity government” in June 2014. .